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Geert Hofstede Analysis

Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions


Geert Hofstede™ is the trademark of Dr. Geert Hofstede, Velp, Netherlands

Dr. Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. From 1967 to 1973, while working at IBM as a psychologist, he collected and analyzed data from over 100,000 individuals from forty countries. From those results, and later additions, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary dimensions to differentiate cultures. He later added a fifth dimension, Long-term Outlook.

As with any generalized study, the results may or may not be applicable to specific individuals or events. In addition, although the Hofstede's results are categorized by country, often there is more than one cultural group within that country. In these cases there may be significant deviation from the study's result. An example is Canada, where the majority of English speaking population and the minority French speaking population in Quebec has moderate cultural differences.

Geert Hofstede's dimensions analysis can assist the business person or traveler in better understanding the intercultural differences within regions and between counties.

"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede


Geert Hofstede has recently received greater academic scrutiny for his methods of defining and delineating National Cultural Consequences.

For students, teachers, and professors who want to review an academic paper by Dr. Brendan McSweeney, titled, Hofstede's Model of National Cultural Differences and Their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith - A Failure of Analysis Click Here

 

Geert Hofstede Analysis is discussed
on each Country's page in this Website
with the following format:

Power Distance Index  Power Distance Index (PDI) focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society de-emphasizes the differences between citizen's power and wealth. In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is stressed.

Individualism  Individualism (IDV) focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective, achievement and interpersonal relationships. A High Individualism ranking indicates that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society. Individuals in these societies may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.

Masculinity  Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society.

Uncertainty Avoidance  Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society - i.e. unstructured situations. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. A Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risks.

Geert Hofstede added the following fifth (5th) dimension after conducting an additional international study using a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. That survey resulted in addition of the Confucian dynamism. Subsequently, Hofstede described that dimension as a culture's long-term Orientation.

Long Term Orientation  Long-Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking values. High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work. However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an "outsider". A Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country does not reinforce the concept of long-term, traditional orientation. In this culture, change can occur more rapidly as long-term traditions and commitments do not become impediments to change.

Discussion of Geert Hofstede Dimensions are available on each country page, plus additional web site links and reading materials that are applicable to that country.

Hofstede Cultural Dimension Scores


Geert Hofstede Resources

 More excellent information on the Geert-Hofstede website

 Geert Hofstede Dimensions scores for 56 countries and regions

 Hofstede, Geert. (2010) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition 576 pages. McGraw-Hill - Based on research conducted in more than seventy countries over a forty-year span, Cultures and Organizations examines what drives people apart—when cooperation is so clearly in everyone’s interest. With major new contributions from Michael Minkov’s analysis of data from the World Values Survey, as well as an account of the evolution of cultures by Gert Jan Hofstede, this revised and expanded edition:

  • Reveals the “moral circles” from which national societies are built and the unexamined rules by which people think, feel, and act
  • Explores how national cultures differ in the areas of inequality, assertiveness versus modesty, and tolerance for ambiguity
  • Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures—and how they can be managed Analyzes stereotyping, differences in language, cultural roots of the 2008 economic crisis, and other intercultural dynamics

 Hofstede, Geert. (2001) Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations 616 pages Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc; 2nd edition - Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation.

 Hofstede, Geert. (1994) Uncommon Sense about Organizations: Cases, Studies and Field Observations 299 pages. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, hardcover - A collection of 17 chapters around the topics: I. The impact of jobs on people; II. Power and control in organizations; and III. Studies in training settings. All chapters are based on Geert Hofstede's research, and all present counter-intuitive outcomes. Chapters are suitable for classroom use in a course of Organizational Behavior. Paperback Edition

 Hofstede, Geert. (1998) Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures 238 pages. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, hardcover - An introduction and consequences for gender roles, sexual behavior and religion. Paperback Edition

 Hofstede, Geert. (1996) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival  New York, McGraw-Hill.

 Hofstede, Geert. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

 

Countries

Africa   Argentina   Australia   Brazil   Canada   Chile   China  Colombia  Costa Rica   Ecuador   Egypt   El Salvador   France   Germany   Great Britain   Guatemala  Hong Kong   India   Indonesia  Italy   Japan   Mexico   New Zealand   Panama   Russia   Saudi Arabia   Spain   Taiwan   United Arab Emirates   United States   Venezuela

HOME PAGE

Regions

 

Geert Hofstede Resources

 More excellent information on the Geert-Hofstede website

 Geert Hofstede Dimensions scores for 56 countries and regions

 Hofstede, Geert. (2010) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition 576 pages. McGraw-Hill - Based on research conducted in more than seventy countries over a forty-year span, Cultures and Organizations examines what drives people apart—when cooperation is so clearly in everyone’s interest. With major new contributions from Michael Minkov’s analysis of data from the World Values Survey, as well as an account of the evolution of cultures by Gert Jan Hofstede, this revised and expanded edition:

  • Reveals the “moral circles” from which national societies are built and the unexamined rules by which people think, feel, and act
  • Explores how national cultures differ in the areas of inequality, assertiveness versus modesty, and tolerance for ambiguity
  • Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures—and how they can be managed
    Analyzes stereotyping, differences in language, cultural roots of the 2008 economic crisis, and other intercultural dynamics

 Hofstede, Geert. (2001) Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations 616 pages Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc; 2nd edition - Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation.

 Hofstede, Geert. (1994) Uncommon Sense about Organizations: Cases, Studies and Field Observations 299 pages. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, hardcover - A collection of 17 chapters around the topics: I. The impact of jobs on people; II. Power and control in organizations; and III. Studies in training settings. All chapters are based on Geert Hofstede's research, and all present counter-intuitive outcomes. Chapters are suitable for classroom use in a course of Organizational Behavior. Paperback Edition

 Hofstede, Geert. (1998) Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures 238 pages. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, hardcover - An introduction and consequences for gender roles, sexual behavior and religion. Paperback Edition

 Hofstede, Geert. (1996) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival  New York, McGraw-Hill.

 Hofstede, Geert. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

 Information on international careers and jobs - International Career Center

Which 143 countries do our Website visitors come from? CLICK HERE to see the list.

Countries

Africa   Argentina   Australia   Brazil   Canada   Chile   China  Colombia   Costa Rica   Ecuador   Egypt   El Salvador   France   Germany   Great Britain   Guatemala  Hong Kong   India   Indonesia  Italy   Japan   Mexico   New Zealand   Panama   Russia   Saudi Arabia   Spain   Taiwan   United Arab Emirates   United States   Venezuela

HOME PAGE

Regions

Resources

Geert Hofstede Information Website             Resource Page

International Business Center

 


Thanks to the UTD Global MBA graduates who work
diligently on collecting the information for this Website.


Thank you to Kimberley Roberts for her frequent contributions to this site.

 

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